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Declaration of Independence
A Brief History
by Stanley L. Klos
July 1776 - Independence Hall

"The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association in 1774. It was matured and continued by the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It was further matured, and the faith of all the then thirteen States expressly plighted and engaged that it should be perpetual, by the Articles of Confederation in 1778. And finally, in 1787, one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing the Constitution was 'to form a more perfect Union.' " Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural

On June 7th, 1776 Richard Henry Lee brought the following resolution before the Continental Congress of the United Colonies:

``Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.'' .

On Saturday, June 8th, Lee's resolution was referred to a committee of the whole (the entire Continental Congress), and they spent most of that day as well as Monday, June 10th debating independence.  The chief opposition for independence came mostly from Pennsylvania, New York and South Carolina.  As Thomas Jefferson said, they "were not yet matured for falling from the parent stem."  Since Congress could not agree more time was needed "to give an opportunity to the delegates from those colonies which had not yet given authority to adopt this decisive measure, to consult their constituents .. and in the meanwhile, that no time be lost, that a committee be appointed to prepare a declaration".

Accordingly on June 11th  Committee of Five was chosen with Thomas Jefferson of Virginia picked unanimously as its first member.  Congress also chose John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman.  The committee assigned Thomas Jefferson the task of producing a draft Declaration for its consideration.

Jefferson's writing of the original draft took place in seventeen days between his appointment on the committee until the report of draft to Congress on June 28th. Thomas Jefferson drew heavily on George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights (passed on June 12, 1776), state and local calls for independence, and his own work on the Virginia Constitution.


Draft Courtesy of the Library of Congress
Click Here to enlarge

Jefferson's original rough draft was first submitted to Benjamin Franklin and John Adams for their thoughts and changes

 "because they were the two members of whose judgments and amendments I wished most to have the benefit before presenting it to the Committee". -- Thomas Jefferson

The entire committee reviewed after Franklin and Adams's changes.  After much discussion 26 changes were made from Jefferson's original draft.  The Committee presented it to Congress on Friday June 28th which ordered it to lie on the table. 

According to historian John C. Fitzpatrick the Declaration's

"...genesis roughly speaking, is the first three sections of George Mason's immortal composition (Virginia Declaration of Rights), Thomas Jefferson's Preamble to the Virginia Constitution, and Richard Henry Lee's resolution..."

Congress was called to order on July 1st at 9am and serious debate consumed most of that hot and humid Monday.  Late in the day it was apparent that the delegates from Pennsylvania and South Carolina were not ready to pass the Lee resolution for Independence.  Additionally the two delegates from Delaware were split so debate was postponed until the following day.  On July 2, 1776 both Robert Morris and John Dickinson deliberately abstained by not attending the session and the remaining Pennsylvania delegation voted for independence.  South Carolina leader's son, Arthur Middleton, chose to ignore his absent and ailing father's Tory wishes changing the colony's position to aye.  Finally the great patriot Caesar Rodney with his face riddled with cancer rode all night through the rain and a lightening storm arriving in time to break the Delaware 1 to 1 deadlock by casting the third vote for independence.  Thus all 12 colonies voted on July 2nd and adopted the resolution, introduced by Richard Henry Lee and John Adams, declaring independence from Great Britain:

``Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.'' .

On July 2, 1776 the United Colonies of America officially became the United States of America.


Richard Henry Lee's Resolution
Courtesy of the National Archives

It was July 2, 1776 that John Adams thought would be celebrated by future generations of Americans writing to his wife Abigail Adams on July 3, 1776:


"The Second Day of July 1776 will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. . . . It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires, and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more."

After the resolution was passed the Continental Congress turned to the debate over the Committee of Five's Declaration of Independence.  Time was short and Congress adjourned until Wednesday the 3rd.  The debates of July 3rd and 4th altered the manuscript and with these changes the Declaration of Independence was approved.  Thomas Jefferson was disappointed by the "depredations" made by Congress writing:

The pusillanimous idea that we had friends in England worth keeping terms with, still haunted the minds of many.  For this reason those passages which conveyed censures on the people of England were struck out, lest they should give them offense.  The clause too, reprobating the enslaving the inhabitants of Africa, was struck out in compliance to South Carolina and Georgia, who had never attempted to restrain the importation of slaves, and who on the contrary still wished to continue it.  Our Northern brethren also I believe felt a little tender under these censures; for tho' their people have very few slaves themselves yet they had been pretty considerable carriers of them to others."

Despite this and other key edits and changes Jefferson is rightfully considered the author of the Declaration of Independence.

 

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776
__________________________________________________________

It was July 1776. Fighting between the American colonists and the British forces had been going on for over a year. The Continental Congress had been meeting since June, wrestling with the question of independence. Finally, late in the afternoon on July 4th, 1776 twelve of the thirteen colonies reached agreement to formally declare the new states as a free and independent nation. New York was the lone holdout. In the evening Congress ordered:

That the declaration be authenticated and printed

That the committee appointed to prepare the declaration superintend and correct the press

That the copies of the declaration be sent to the several assemblies, conventions and committees, or councils of safety, and to the several commanding officers of the continental troops, and that it be proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head of the army.

In accordance with the above order Philadelphia printer John Dunlap was given the task to print broadside copies of the agreed-upon declaration that was signed by John Hancock as President and Charles Thomson as Secretary of the Continental Congress ( Click Here to learn about the Presidents of the Continental Congress and the United States in Congress Assembled before George Washington).

John Dunlap is thought to have printed between 200 to 500 Broadsides that July 4th evening which were distributed to the members of Congress on July 5th. It is a known fact that John Hancock sent a copy on July 5th, 1776 to the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania, a copy to the Convention of New Jersey, and a copy to Colonel Haslet with instructions to have it read at the head of his battalion.  In addition John Admas sent one copy, and Elbridge Gerry two copies , to friends.

The Declaration as affirmatively voted on on July 4th was not signed on that day.  The New York Delegates were required to abstain from voting.  John Hancock sent a Dunlap broadside off to the NY Provincial Congress on Saturday July 6th.  On July 9th the New York Provincial congress sitting in the Court House in White Plains adopted this resolution under the leadership of John Jay:

"That reasons assigned by the Continental Congress for declaring The United Colonies Free and Independent States, are cogent and conclusive, and that now we approve the same, and will at the risque of our lives and fortunes, join with the other colonies in supporting it."

The New York Resolution was laid before the Continental Congress on July 15th so then and not before was it proper to entitle the document "The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen States of America."  Contrary to popular belief, this printed broadside with only Hancock and Thomson's names was the actual document delivered to King George III in England later that year. The names of the other delegates who voted for Independence were not published until 1777.


Click Image to Enlarge

Broadside Produced during the night of July 4, 1776, by printer John Dunlap - Courtesy of the National Archives

Today there are only 25 of these broadsides that are known to exist. The original Declaration of Independence that was signed by John Hancock and Charles Thomson after the delegates voted on July 4, 1776 is lost. One of these unsigned "Dunlap Broadsides", as it is known, sold for $8.14 million in a August 2000 New York City Auction. This copy was discovered in 1989 by a man browsing in a flea market who purchased a painting for four dollars because he was interested in the frame. Concealed in the backing of the frame was an Original Dunlap Broadside of the Declaration of Independence.

The other printings of the Dunlap Broadside known to exist are dispersed among private owners, American and British institutions. The following are the current know locations of the Dunlap Broadsides.

National Archives, Washington, DC
Library of Congress, Washington, DC (two copies)
Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA
Independence National Historic Park, Philadelphia
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
New York Historical Society
New York Public Library
Pierpont Morgan Library, New York
Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Chapin Library, Williams College, Williamstown, MA
Yale University, New Haven, CT
American Independence Museum, Exeter, NH
Maine Historical Society, Portland
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Chicago Historical Society
City of Dallas, City Hall
Norman Lear and David Hayden (private collectors)
Public Record Office, United Kingdom (two copies)

The author is pictured here holding The Dunlap Declaration and Thomas Jefferson's Committee of Five Final Draft of the Declaration of Independence which are both housed at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia.

We sincerely thank American Philosophical Society for allowing us to photograph and inspect the Original Draft and Broadside of the Declaration of Independence. Please be sure to visit the APS web site by Clicking Here.

State Broadsides

As the Delegates returned home with the Dunlap Broadsides each State decided on how to disseminate the Declaration of Independence to its citizens. Some states, like Virginia, chose newspapers while others ordered official State Broadsides to be printed.

The official printing ordered by Massachusetts was to be distributed to ministers of all denominations, to be read to their congregations. News of the declaration was proclaimed in every parish of Massachusetts via this original broadside (see below). In the absence of other media, broadsides such as this were subsequently distributed out among the colonies and tacked to the walls of churches and other meeting places to spread news of Americas independence.


Click Here to enlarge a Massachusetts Broadside
The Klos Family's Broadside
was replevined in 2001 by the State of Maine

The Broadside above is dated in print July 4 1776, Printed by E. Russell, Salem, Massachusetts, "by order of the Council of the Colony of Massachusetts at Salem," c. July 17, 1776.

The Engrossed Declaration

On July 19, 1776 Congress ordered that the Declaration be

"fairly engrossed on parchment, with the title and stile [sic] of 'The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America,' and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress."

Timothy Matlack, a Pennsylvanian who had assisted the Secretary of the Congress, Charles Thomson prepared the official document in a large, clear hand. Matlack was also the "scribe" who wrote out George Washington's commission as commanding general of the Continental Army which was also signed by President John Hancock. Finally on August 2, 1776 the journal of the Continental Congress record reports: "The declaration of independence being engrossed and compared at the table was signed." which contradicts the popular belief that the Declaration was signed on July 4, 1776, by all the delegates in attendance.

"John Hancock, the President of the Congress, was the first to sign the sheet of parchment measuring 24¼ by 29¾ inches. He used a bold signature centered below the text. In accordance with prevailing custom, the other delegates began to sign at the right below the text, their signatures arranged according to the geographic location of the states they represented. New Hampshire, the northernmost state, began the list, and Georgia, the southernmost, ended it. Eventually 56 delegates signed, although all were not present on August 2. Among the later signers were Elbridge Gerry, Oliver Wolcott, Lewis Morris, Thomas McKean, and Matthew Thornton, who found that he had no room to sign with the other New Hampshire delegates. A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress." Non-signers included John Dickinson, who clung to the idea of reconciliation with Britain, and Robert R. Livingston, one of the Committee of Five, who thought the Declaration was premature." -- National Archives and Records Administration

With the signatures of 56 brave delegates, this new nation born in freedom with an indivisible spirit, proclaimed on a singular piece of parchment their Unanimous Declaration of Independence.

Click Here to View the ink stand used to sign the Declaration of Independence - Thank you Ranger Stewart A.W. Low

The Declaration of Independence was safeguarded all throughout the revolutionary war traveling with the Continental Congress to maintain its safety. The National Archives lists the following locations of the Traveling Declaration since 1776:

Philadelphia: August-December 1776
Baltimore: December 1776-March 1777
Philadelphia: March-September 1777
Lancaster, PA: September 27, 1777
York, PA: September 30, 1777-June 1778
Philadelphia: July 1778-June 1783
Princeton, NJ: June-November 1783
Annapolis, MD: November 1783-October 1784
Trenton, NJ: November-December 1784
New York: 1785-1790
Philadelphia: 1790-1800
Washington, DC (three locations): 1800-1814
Leesburg, VA: August-September 1814
Washington, DC (three locations): 1814-1841
Washington, DC (Patent Office Building): 1841-1876
Philadelphia: May-November 1876
Washington, DC (State, War, and Navy Building): 1877-1921
Washington, DC (Library of Congress): 1921-1941
Fort Knox*: 1941-1944
Washington, DC (Library of Congress): 1944-1952
Washington, DC (National Archives): 1952-present

*Except that the document was displayed on April 13, 1943, at the dedication of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington, DC.

The original Declaration, now exhibited in the Rotunda of the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, has faded badly--largely because of poor preservation techniques during the 19th century and the wet ink transfer of 1820.

Click to View the Engrossed Original Declaration


The Wet Ink Transfer of the Declaration

By 1820 the condition of the only signed Declaration of Independence was rapidly deteriorating. In that year John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State, commissioned William J. Stone of Washington to create exact copies of the Declaration using a "new" Wet-Ink Transfer process. Unfortunately this Wet-Ink Transfer greatly contributed to the degradation of the only engrossed and signed Declaration of Independence ever produced.

On April 24, 1903 the National Academy of Sciences reported its findings, summarizing the physical history of the Declaration:

"The instrument has suffered very seriously from the very harsh treatment to which it was exposed in the early years of the Republic. Folding and rolling have creased the parchment. The wet press-copying operation to which it was exposed about 1820, for the purpose of producing a facsimile copy, removed a large portion of the ink. Subsequent exposure to the action of light for more than thirty years, while the instrument was placed on exhibition, has resulted in the fading of the ink, particularly in the signatures. The present method of caring for the instrument seems to be the best that can be suggested."

The Wet-Ink Transfer Process called for the surface of the Declaration to be moistened transferring some of the original ink to the surface of a clean copper plate. Three and one-half years later under the date of June 4, 1823, the National Intelligencer reported that:

“the City Gazette informs us that Mr. Wm. J. Stone, a respectable and enterprising (sic) engraver of this City has, after a labor of three years, completed a facsimile of the Original of the Declaration of Independence, now in the archives of the government, that it is executed with the greatest exactness and fidelity; and that the Department of State has become the purchaser of the plate. The facility of multiplying copies of it, now possessed by the Department of State will render furthur (sic) exposure of the original unnecessary.”

On May 26, 1824, a resolution by the Senate and House of Representatives provided:

"That two hundred copies of the Declaration, now in the Department of State, be distributed in the manner following: two copies to each of the surviving Signers of the Declaration of Independence (John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Charles Carroll of Carrollton); two copies to the President of the United States (Monroe); two copies to the Vice-President of the United States (Tompkins); two copies to the late President, Mr. Madison; two copies to the Marquis de Lafayette, twenty copies for the two houses of Congress; twelve copies for the different departments of the Government (State, Treasury, Justice, Navy, War and Postmaster); two copies for the President’s House; two copies for the Supreme Court room, one copy to each of the Governors of the States; and one to each of the Governors of the Territories of the United States; and one copy to the Council of each Territory; and the remaining copies to the different Universities and Colleges of the United States, as the President of the United States may direct.”

The 201 official parchment copies struck from the Stone plate carry the identification "Engraved by W. J. Stone for the Department of State, by order" in the upper left corner followed by "of J. Q. Adams, Sec. of State July 4th 1824." in the upper right corner. "Unofficial" copies that were struck later do not have the identification at the top of the document or are the printed on vellum. Instead the engraver identified his work by engraving "W. J. Stone SC. Washn." near the lower left corner and burnishing out the earlier identification. Today 31 of the 201 Stone facsimiles printed in 1823 are known to exist.

Click to view the National Archives, version of the Stone engraving


The original plate, which was altered after the printing in 1824. It is unknown if the plate was used until 1848. In that year Congress commissioned Peter Force to prepare a series of books entitled The American Archives. The purpose of this book was to compile the 1774 through 1777 American Archives which also included reproduction of key founding documents of the United States. For that occasion the Wet Ink copper plate was removed from storage and altered once again to reflect the 1848 printing. Then, by virtue of an Act of Congress, Peter Force was permitted to print copies on rice paper from the actual “Wet Ink copper Plate. These documents were then folded and inserted into Volume 1 of The American Archives collection. Of the rice paper printings of 1848-9, it is believed that Force printed between 900 and 1200 copies as the Archival cost limited the number of clients. It is not known precisely how many "rice wet ink transfers" survive.


William Stone Copper Plate and 1976 Printing Photo
Courtesy of the National Archives
Click to Enlarge

The copper plate was not used again until 1976 when several copies were printed for the Bicentennial Celebration. The 1823 copper plate currently remains in storage at the National Archives. The plate is not scheduled to be used again until the celebration of the Tri-centennial in the year 2076.

Be Sure to Visit
The American Philosphical Society
Friends of Franklin, Inc.


Klos Family's Wet Ink Transfer of the Declaration of Independence

We invite you to read a transcription of the complete text of the Declaration as presented by the National Archives.

&

The article "The Declaration of Independence: A History," which provides a detailed account of the Declaration, from its drafting through its preservation today at the National Archives.

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:
[Column 1]
Georgia - Signers
ButtonGwinnett.com
GeorgeWalton.com Lyman-Hall.com

[Column 2]
North Carolina:
WilliamHooper.com
JosephHewes.com
JohnPenn.com 
South Carolina:
ThomasHeywardJr.com
ThomasLynchJr.com
ArthurMiddleton.com
EdwardRutledge.com 
[Column 3]
Massachusetts:
JohnHancock.org

Maryland:
SamuelChase.com
WilliamPaca.com
ThomasStone.com
CharlesCarrollofCarrollton.com

Virginia:
GeorgeWythe.net
RichardHenryLee.com
Thomas-Jefferson.net
BenjaminHarrison.com
ThomasNelsonJr.com
FrancisLightfootLee.com
ThomasNelsonJr.com
CarterBraxton.net
[Column 4]
Pennsylvania:
Robert-Morris.com
BenjaminRush.com
BenjaminFranklin.org
JohnMorton.net
GeorgeClymer.com
James-Smith.net
GeorgeTaylor.net
JamesWilson.org
GeorgeRoss.net

Delaware:
CaesarRodney.net
GeorgeRead.org
ThomasMcKean.com

[Column 5]
New York:
WilliamFloyd.net
PhilipLivingston.com FrancisLewis.com
LewisMorris.com

New Jersey:
RichardStockton.net
JohnWitherspoon.com
FrancisHopkinson.com
JohnHart.net
AbrahamClark.com

[Column 6]
New Hampshire:
 JosiahBartlett.com
WilliamWhipple.com Massachusetts:
SamuelAdams.net
John-Adams.org
RobertTreatPaine.com ElbridgeGerry.com

Rhode Island: 
WilliamEllery.com
StephenHopkins.com
Connecticut:
RogerSherman.net
SamuelHuntington.net
WilliamWilliams.com
OliverWolcott.com
New Hampshire:
MatthewThornton.net



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